Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a disability that follows an injury to the brain as a result of an accident, insufficient oxygen, poisoning or infection. It does not include congenital or degenerative brain injuries or brain injuries caused by birth trauma.


TBI, also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features. Head injury is a broader category that may involve damage to other structures such as the scalp and skull. TBI can result in physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral symptoms. An outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death.

Traumatic brain injury may result in impairment in cognition, language, social skills, memory, attention, reasoning, behavior, physical functioning, psychological functioning, information processing, or speech.

Traumatic Brain Injury Therapy

Therapy results vary by level of injury, with the goal for many being to return to school or to work, but with new and different levels of support. Depending on the injury, treatment may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, surgery or surgery years later. Speech therapy, recreation and occupational therapy, as wells as vision therapy may be employed for rehabilitation.


Prevention measures include use of protective technology in vehicles, as well as efforts to reduce the number of collisions. Counseling, supported employment, and community support services may also be useful.


TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Males sustain traumatic brain injuries more frequently than do females. The 20th century saw developments in diagnosis and treatment that decreased death rates and improved outcome.